Artificial insemination is an assisted reproduction technique that consists in depositing semen previously extracted either by the partner (IAC) or by a donor (IAD) into the uterus to fertilize the egg naturally to achieve pregnancy. It is a simple technique that increases the chances of getting pregnant and it can be performed repeatedly without any problem.
The reasons why artificial insemination is performed is usually linked with slight alterations in the quantity and / or quality of semen, the technique is also used in infertility of cervical origin either by alterations of the cervix or cervical mucus, in ovulatory dysfunctions such as polycystic ovaries and in cases of unexplained infertility.
The procedure is divided into the following stages;
- Ovarian stimulation: The process of artificial insemination is usually performed with ovarian stimulation, which although not absolutely necessary and could be done with a natural cycle, it increases the chances of success. The stimulation is smooth and only a few follicles develop in order to avoid, wherever possible, multiple pregnancies.
- Ovulation induction: when follicles have reached appropriate maturity, one proceeds to induce ovulation after administration of hormonal therapy, usually hCG
- Semen preparation: after collecting the semen sample by masturbation, one modify the sample to remove the seminal fluid of the same, making competent sperm and selecting sperm with more mobility. The most common techniques are to realize swing-up and gradients.
- Insemination: involves depositing semen once extracted intrauterine using a special catheter. This insemination technique is painless, requires no anaesthesia and is done in consultation.